Creative Industries Australia
Population: 22,751,014 (July 2015 est.)
Internet country code: .au
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia’s internal and external territories; on the fly half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small, five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars
Commonwealth of Australia
Prehistoric settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia at least 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession of the east coast in the name of Great Britain (all of Australia was claimed as British territory in 1829 with the creation of the colony of Western Australia). Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the Allied effort in World Wars I and II.
In recent decades, Australia has become an internationally competitive, advanced market economy due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s and its location in one of the fastest growing regions of the world economy. Long-term concerns include an aging population, pressure on infrastructure, and environmental issues such as floods, droughts, and bushfires. Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth, making it particularly vulnerable to the challenges of climate change. Australia is home to 10 per cent of the world’s biodiversity, and a great number of its flora and fauna exist nowhere else in the world.
Economy of Australia
Sydney Skyline – Photo by David Iliff.
Following two decades of continuous growth, low unemployment, contained inflation, very low public debt, and a strong and stable financial system, Australia enters 2016 facing a range of growth constraints, principally driven by a sharp fall in global prices of key export commodities. Although demand for resources and energy from Asia and especially China has grown rapidly, creating a channel for resources investments and growth in commodity exports, sharp drops in current prices have already impacted growth.
The services sector is the largest part of the Australian economy, accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of jobs. Australia was comparatively unaffected by the global financial crisis as the banking system has remained strong and inflation is under control.
Australia benefited from a dramatic surge in its terms of trade in recent years, although this trend has reversed due to falling global commodity prices. Australia is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy, and food. Australia’s abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector.
Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services. The process of opening up has increased productivity, stimulated growth, and made the economy more flexible and dynamic. Australia plays an active role in the World Trade Organization, APEC, the G20, and other trade forums. Australia entered into free trade agreements (FTAs) with the Republic of Korea and Japan, and concluded an FTA with China, in 2014, adding to existing FTAs with Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, and the US, and a regional FTA with ASEAN and New Zealand. Australia continues to negotiate bilateral agreements with India and Indonesia, as well as larger agreements with its Pacific neighbors and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, and an Asia-wide Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership that includes the ten ASEAN countries and China, Japan, Korea, New Zealand and India. Australia is also working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement with Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the US, and Vietnam.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.489 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.454 trillion (2014 est.)
$1.56 trillion (2013 est.)
note: data are in 2015 US dollars
Cultural and Creative Industries in Australia
ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (CCI)
The ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (CCI) was established in 2005 to focus research and development on the role the creative industries and their contributing disciplines make to a more dynamic and inclusive innovation system and society.
The CCI narrative: research for a creative Australia
Essentially, the story of the CCI has been to give substance to the link between creative industries and innovation, to explore its implications for our core academic discipline fields and several policy domains and, working with industry and community, to assist in its application in practical circumstances. In short, it has sought to mainstream innovation in and through the creative industries for policy consideration, deepen it for academic engagement, and apply it for industry and community benefit. The ‘object of study’ has been arguably more changeable over the period than fields of research intensity such as biotechnology, medical research or IT.
Australia Council for the Arts : Arts and Creative Industries
Dr Justin O’Connor is a professor in the ARC Centre for Creativity and Innovation at the Queensland University of Technology. In January 2015, the Australia Council released his report entitled Arts and Creative Industries, which outlined the development of the creative industries in Australia and discussed the role of economics in arts and cultural policy debate.