between creativity and commerce
Cultural Industries and Creative Industries
The term cultural industries refers to industries which combine the creation, production and commercialization of creative contents which are intangible and cultural in nature. The contents are typically protected by copyright and they can take the form of a good or a service. Cultural industries generally include printing, publishing and multimedia, audiovisual, phonographic and cinematographic productions as well as crafts and design.
The term creative industries encompasses a broader range of activities which include the cultural industries plus all cultural or artistic production, whether live or produced as an individual unit. The creative industries are those in which the product or service contains a substantial element of artistic or creative endeavour and include activities such as architecture and advertising. In this article, these terms are used precisely and are not synonymous nor interchangeable.
UNESCO and Creative Industries
The United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO) defines cultural and creative industries as:
“sectors of organised activity whose principal purpose is the production or reproduction, promotion, distribution and/or commercialisation of goods, services and activities of a cultural, artistic or heritage-related nature.”
This approach emphasises more than just the industrially made products of human creativity, it makes relevant the entire productive chain, as well as the specific functions of each sector involved in bringing these creations to the public. Thus, the definition also encompasses related activities, such as publicity and graphic design, which are decisive factors in this process. (UNESCO Santiago)
© UNESCO / Antonio Viscido, Third UNESCO World Forum on Culture and Cultural Industries, Florence, 2014
Understanding Creative Industries
Creative industries are becoming increasingly important components of modern post-industrial knowledge-based economies. Not only are they thought to account for higher than average growth and job creation, they are also vehicles of cultural identity that play an important role in fostering cultural diversity.
During the last decade a number of governments around the world have recognised this fact and started to develop specific policies to promote them. This mainstreaming of what was once considered a sector of marginal interest, which received limited attention from researchers, has led to a growing body of analysis, statistics and mapping exercises on the relationship between culture, creative industries and economic development to give officials in these countries the raw data they need to make policy. However, the sector is still poorly understood and many governments remain to be convinced of its potential, while trying to accurately measure economic activity in the sector poses considerable obstacles.
As momentum builds to prioritise this field of activity within economic development policies, the demand for more precise and sophisticated cultural statistics at international, regional and national level is set to grow and governments should support and encourage initiatives in this field. The Global Alliance, dedicated to promoting the cultural industries , such as cinema, music, publishing and crafts, fully supports the progress of recent years to map and study this sector more closely and actively works to advocate further research, disseminate best practices and collect published studies in this field on its website.
Enabling Crossovers – Good Practices in the Creative Industries
This compilation of 36 good practices in the creative industries across Asia and Europe showcase examples of policy and practice that may serve as inspiration for networking, collaboration and policy making. The mapping covers the four areas being addressed at the 6th Culture Ministers’ Meeting of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), namely creative skills, creative entrepreneurs, creative cities: sustainability, and creative cities: quality of life.
ECIA experts set agenda for future of creative industries
27 Nov 2014 – Experts from 12 European countries have joined forces to strengthen the future of the creative industries. Today they present a 10 step action plan to enable cross-sectoral collaboration and access to finance. The European Creative Industries Alliance (ECIA) is the platform on which these experts in the field of creative industries collaborate to set an agenda for innovation and growth. According to the experts, the creative industries also need to measure and raise awareness of their value as key driver of innovation and growth.